User Interface Frameworks

A user interface framework, or, front-end framework as they are sometimes known, contain HTML and CSS design templates for building web sites and web applications. These templates can cover layout, typography, forms and navigation, along with other interface components and aid in the rapid development of web sites and web applications. As well as HTML and CSS templates, optional functionality is often provided in the form of JavaScript based extensions.


Development of Bootstrap was initially started by Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton, two employees of the social network Twitter, to provide some consistency in development of internal tools within Twitter, under its original name of Twitter Blueprint. After a short time, other developers within the organisation joined in with its development and in August 2011 it was released as an open source project. Today, both Mark and Jacob are still involved in the development of Bootstrap, along with a small team of other core developers and a large community of contributors.

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FoundationZurb Foundation

Like Bootstrap, Foundation was first released as an open source project in 2011 and is developed by Zurb, a product design company, along with many contributors from its community. Initial development of Foundation, originally known as ZURB Style Guide, started internally within Zurb in 2008 as a means to speed up work for their clients. It was renamed to Foundation in 2010, before version two was released as an open source project in September 2011.

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Some Alternative User Interface Frameworks