Accessibility, from a web perspective, is the practice of ensuring that websites are accessible to all, regardless of ability or disability. Disabilities to consider include physical disabilities, situational disabilities and socio-economic restrictions.


Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA)

A specification by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for adding semantics and other metadata to HTML to aid those who use assistive technology.

Application Programming Interface (API)

A library of related programme code available for programmers to use.


C# is an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) language from Microsoft, which was first released back in 2002, along with the .NET Framework. C#, along with the .NET software development framework, can be used to create both Microsoft Windows and web-based applications, as well as XML web services and much more. It shares much of its syntax with the C and C++ programming languages.

With the introduction of the .NET Core software development framework in 2016, it is now possible to produce cross-platform applications for the Microsoft Windows, Linux and macOS operating systems.



CIA, or Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability, is a security model that can be used to guide an organisation's policies on information security. Also sometimes known as the CIA triad or AIC triad.


Ciphertext is the result of plaintext being encrypted using an algorithm, known as a cipher.

Content Management System (CMS)

A Content Management System, or CMS for short, is a web based application that allows non-technical users to manage the content of a website. These applications are built using web technologies such as PHP or the .NET Framework and utilise a database, for example, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQL Server, to store the website information.



CRUD is an acronym for Create, Read, Update and Delete, and refers to the possible ways to operate on stored data.


CSS, or Cascading Style Sheets, is a language that is used to provide the look and feel to the structure of a web page, for example, the colour and font used for paragraph text.


Document Object Model (DOM)

The DOM is an API, or interface, which is loaded in a web browser, that allows for interaction with HTML and XML documents. It represents these documents in a tree structure, where each node is an object representing a part of the document.


The process of converting plain text into ciphertext to prevent unauthorised access.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A protocol that works at the application layer, which is used to transfer files over a network connection.

File Transfer Protocol Secure (FTPS)

A protocol that works at the application layer, which is used to transfer files over a network connection, using FTP over an SSL or TLS connection.

General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR)

European Union law that specifies a broad set of rights and protections for personal information of EU citizens.


HTML, or Hyper Text Markup Language, is a language that is used to provide the structure of web pages, using tags to define different parts of the page structure, for example, <h1> tags to denote the largest headings, or <p> tags for paragraphs of text.


Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

HTTP is a network protocol that facilitates the transfer of documents, such as web pages, on the web, typically between a web browser and a server.

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)

HTTPS is a secure version of HTTP, that encrypts communications between a client and server, using SSL or TLS.

Immutable Object

A computer programming term used to describe an object whose state cannot be changed after it has been defined.


In Object-Oriented Programming, Inheritance refers to the ability of an object to take on, or inherit, the properties of another object.


Java is an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) language that was first released by its original developers, Sun Microsystems, back in 1995. Today the development of Java is in the hands of Oracle, following its acquisition of Sun Microsystems back in January 2010.

The Java language shares much of its syntax with the C and C++ programming languages, and is said to be fast, reliable and secure. It was developed on the WORA, or Write Once Read Anywhere, principle, which means that it can run on any platform that supports Java, including, laptops, datacentres, game consoles, supercomputers, mobile phones and more.



JavaScript is a scripting language that is designed for use with the web. It is built into all modern web browsers and can be used to make web pages more dynamic. JavaScript can be embedded into the HTML of a web page and is executed by the browser on the users computer. It can be used, for example, to validate the entry of a contact form before it is submitted, or, change a web page visually in some way following a particular event.


Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

A protocol used by a number of operating systems and applications to access directories.

Mutable Object

A computer programming term used to describe an object whose state can change after it has been defined.


Model-View-Controller, or MVC for short, is a design pattern utilised in software development, which is used to implement software interfaces, data and controlling logic, separating out the business logic from the display.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

A programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which may contain data, in the form of fields or attributes, and behaviours, in the form of procedures or methods. Computer programs created in this way are usually made up of multiple objects that interact with one another.

Open Source

Software that is said to be open source refers to the fact that the original source code used to create it is made freely available to view, modify, enhance and redistribute.


PHP is a scripting language, a bit like JavaScript, however, instead of being executed by the users browser, it is interpreted by the web server where the website resides, which produces HTML that the end user sees. It is known as a server-side scripting language. Again, as with JavaScript, it can be embedded into HTML and used to make a web page more dynamic. It can also be used to interact with a database such as, MySQL, PostgreSQL or Oracle, to store and retrieve content.



In Object-Oriented Programming, Polymorphism refers to the ability of a programming language to process objects differently depending on their data type or class.


Python is a general-purpose programming language, which can be used for building web applications, desktop application, video games and much more. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming.


REpresentational State Transfer (REST)

REST is a group of software architecture design constraints that facilitate the creation of efficient, reliable and scalable distributed systems on the web, making it easier for systems to communicate with one another.

REST has six guiding constraints, which must be satisfied if an interface needs to be referred to as RESTful.


Secure Shell (SSH)

An encrypted remote terminal connection program, used to remotely connect to a server. SSH uses asymmetric encryption, however, it generally requires an independent source of trust with a server, such as manually receiving a server key, to operate.

Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)

SFTP uses SSH to provide the encryption for secure file transfer.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A protocol developed for transmitting private documents over the internet. It works by using a public key to encrypt sensitive data. This encrypted data is then sent over an SSL connection and then decrypted at the receiving end using a private key. Deprecated by Transport Layer Security (TLS).

Software Development Kit (SDK)

A collection of software development tools that facilitate the creation of software, which can include a software framework, compiler and debugger.

Transport Layer Security (TLS)

An encryption protocol that is used to securely connect between clients and servers, such as when a web browser securely connects to a website. This replaces Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

A Virtual Learning Environment, or VLE for short, which is also sometimes referred to as a Learner Management System, or LMS, is a system for delivering learning material via the web. Its purpose is not to replace face to face teaching, but to enhance it, with the use of various activities that they provide. VLEs are also a means to share resources with its users, such as files and web links.


World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

An international body that maintains web-related rules and frameworks, comprising of over 350 member organisations, which jointly develop web standards, run outreach programs, and maintain an open forum for talking about the Web.