AngularAngular, also referred to as AngularJS or Angular.js, is a front-end JavaScript framework, developed by Google, along with its community, that works in the browser and allows for the development of robust, single page applications. It was originally developed back in 2009 and has since gone through a major rewrite for version two, which was released in September 2016. As the framework works in the browser, once it is loaded, it makes an application run very fast. Typically, a user interaction will cause part of a page to be updated, with a request to the server for small amounts of data.

When combined with the other JavaScript based technologies MongoDB, Express and Node.js it forms what is known as a MEAN Stack application or Full Stack JavaScript application, using JavaScript in the browser and on the server, as well as incorporating the MongoDB database.

Angular is based on four key concepts, templates, directives, controllers and scope. Templates contain most of the HTML and provide the structure to an application. Directives are used to extend the HTML in the templates themselves by using additional tags and attributes, and can perform tasks such as evaluating user interactions, or, manipulating data in some way. Controllers contain the logic that tells an application how to behave, for example, the actions that occur once a button is clicked. Finally, scope, this deals with the manipulation of data within an application, as well as the updating of the user interface following a user interaction.

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